The 100 most Influential Musicians Of All Time – Josquin Des Prez
(b. c. 1450, Condé-sur-l’Escaut?, Burgundian Hainaut [France]—d.Aug. 27, 1521, Condé-sur-l’Escaut)
Josquin des Prez was one of the greatest composers of Renaissance Europe. Josquin’s early life has been the subject of much scholarly debate, and the ﬁrst solid evidence of his work comes from a roll of musicians associated with the cathedral in Cambrai in the early 1470s. During the late 1470s and early ’80s, he sang for the courts of René I of Anjou and Duke Galeazzo Maria Sforza of Milan, and from 1486 to about 1494 he performed for the papal chapel.
Sometime between then and 1499, when he became choirmaster to Duke Ercole I of Ferrara, he apparently had connections with the Chapel Royal of Louis XII of France and with the Cathedral of Cambrai. In Ferrara he wrote, in honour of his employer, the mass Hercules Dux Ferrariae, and his motet Miserere was composed at the duke’s request. He seems to have left Ferrara on the death of the duke in 1505 and later became provost of the collegiate church of Notre Dame in Condé.
Josquin’s compositions fall into the three principal cat- egories of motets, masses, and chansons. Of the 20 masses that survive complete, 17 were printed in his lifetime in three sets (1502, 1505, 1514) by Ottaviano dei Petrucci. His motets and chansons were included in other Petrucci publications, from the Odhecaton (an anthology of popular chansons) of 1501 onward, and in collections of other print- ers.
Martin Luther expressed great admiration for Josquin’s music, calling him “master of the notes, which must do as he wishes; other composers must do as the notes wish.” In his musical techniques he stands at the summit of the Renaissance, blending traditional forms with innovations that later became standard practices. The expressiveness of his music marks a break with the medieval tradition of more abstract music.
Especially in his motets, Josquin gave free reign to his talent, expressing sorrow in poignant harmonies, employing suspension for emphasis, and taking the voices gradually into their lowest registers when the text speaks of death.
Josquin used the old cantus ﬁrmus style, but he also devel- oped the motet style that characterized the 16th century after him. His motets, as well as his masses, show an approach to the modern sense of tonality. In his later works Josquin gradually abandoned cantus ﬁrmus technique for parody and paraphrase. He also frequently used the tech- niques of canon and of melodic imitation.
In his chansons Josquin was the principal exponent of a style new in the mid-15th century, in which the learned techniques of canon and counterpoint were applied to secular song. He abandoned the ﬁxed forms of the rondeau and the ballade, employing freer forms of his own device.
Though a few chansons are set homophonically—in chords—rather than polyphonically, a number of others are examples of counterpoint in ﬁve or six voices, maintaining sharp rhythm and clarity of texture.